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Managing Your References
To help you collect, organize, cite, and share the information you find, we recommend using Zotero, a free reference management tool. For more information on Zotero, see:
Obtaining Non-Free Articles
In some cases, you may want to obtain copies of articles that are not freely available. In these cases you typically have several options.
- Conduct an advanced search on the Internet. By entering the full title of the paper in quotes ("_") into an Internet search engine, you may be able to find a copy of the article if the authors have posted it. Also, try searching OAIster in case the paper has been deposited with a university archive.
- Request a copy through your local public or school library. This is usually referred to as "interlibrary loan" or "document delivery" and is often a free service. Talk to your librarian for details.
- Purchase and download the article. Most commercial publishers allow you to purchase and download articles individually. Cost varies by publisher, but expect to pay about $30 per article.
Open Access Journals
A significant trend in scholarly publishing over the past decade has been Open Access publication. These are freely available, often peer reviewed, high-quality scholarly journals. They are supported in part by government and by universities. It should be noted that not all open access publications make their current content available for free--many do not allow free access to articles published in the past 6 months to two years.
The following is a listing of the pricipal open access journals in science and technology.
ArXiv is an e-print service with an extensive, searchable collection of mathematics, physics, quantitative biology, statistics, and computer science papers beginning in 1991.
Most commercial publishers provide some free content, although it can sometimes be difficult to determine what's free and what isn't. See the tab on search tools for a list of publisher websites.
Highwire Press is the publishing division of Stanford University. Not all of their content is free. This link takes you to their listing of free, open access content.
OAIster is a free interface for searching multiple university repositories. These repositories contain publicly acessible copies of faculty research papers, graduate theses and dissertations, and other materials.
Open Science Directory
Listing of open access titles form multiple sources.
PLoS - Public Liibrary of Science
Online repository of open-access scientific journals
PubMed Central is a repository of open access articles and research papers sponsored by the U.S National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health.
Science.gov searches over 60 databases and over 2,200 scientific websites to provide users with access to more than 200 million pages of authoritative federal science information including research and development results.
Charles W. Uth
Subjects: Advanced Manufacturing
, Architectural Engineering
, Author Services
, Biomedical Engineering
, Civil, Architectural, & Environmental Engineering
, Computer Engineering
, Computer Science
, Construction Engineering & Mgt
, Electrical & Computer Engineering
, Electrical Engineering
, Environmental Engineering
, Geotechnical Engineering
, Industrial Technology & Management
, Information Technology and Management
, Manufacturing Engineering
, Scholarly Communication
, Structural Engineering
, Transportation Engineering